Our galaxy – the Milky Way – is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 100 billion in the visible universe.

The planet count in our solar system has gone as high as 15 before new discoveries prompted a fine tuning of the definition of a planet. The most recent change was in 2006 when scientists reclassified Pluto as a new kind of object – a dwarf planet. Today we currently have 8 planets namely, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

I have mentioned earlier that Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet last 2006. What was a dwarf planet anyway? Dwarf planets are also just like planets but they were just too small to be considered as a planet. This new class of worlds helps us categorize objects that orbit the Sun but aren’t quite the same as the rocky planets and gas giants in our solar system. There are 5 dwarf planets in the Milky Way but there could be hundreds more of these small worlds far out there waiting to be discovered.

Many disagreed in 1930 when Pluto was added as our solar system’s ninth planet. The debate flared again in 2005 when Eris — about the same size as Pluto — was found deep in a zone beyond Neptune called the Kuiper Belt. Was it the 10th planet? Or are Eris and Pluto examples of an intriguing, new kind of world?

The International Astronomical Union decided in 2006 that a new system of classification was needed to describe these new worlds, which are more developed than asteroids, but different than the known planets. Pluto, Eris and the asteroid Ceres became the first dwarf planets. Unlike planets, dwarf planets lack the gravitational muscle to sweep up or scatter objects near their orbits. They end up orbiting the sun in zones of similar objects such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts.

Our solar system’s planet count now stands at eight. But the lively debate continues as we continue to explore and make new discoveries.

In our solar system, eight planets circle around our Sun. The Sun sits in the middle while the planets travel in circular paths (called orbits) around it. These planets travel in the same direction (counter- clockwise looking down from the Sun’s north pole).

The solar system is made up of two parts: the inner and the outer solar systems.

The inner solar system is contains Mercury, Venus,Earth and Mars. These four planets are closest to the Sun. While on the other hand, the outer solar system contains Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

The planets are interesting to study since each of them have different characteristics to discover which varies from one another. Each of these characteristics provides the distinction between them. For me, the planets are just like brothers and sisters in a one big family- the Milky Way. Each of them surrounds their father, the sun. We are living in the earth, the third planet in the solar system, the only planet that is available for us to thrive on. The earth is the only planet that has the right temperature and oxygen that enables us to survive. The Mars is also studied because it is said to have the potential of a new world for humans to thrive on. Unfortunately, it has no oxygen in it.

Extra Terrestrial

   Extra terrestrial comes from the latin words: extra (“beyond”, or “not of”) and ‎terrestris (“of or belonging to Earth”. It is defined as life that does not originate from earth. It refers to the alien life or simply the aliens. These hypothetical forms of life range from simple bacteria-like organisms to beings far more advanced than humans.

The extra terrestrial beings are believed to exist though proofs of their existence are still unknown.  Researches have been done to prove their existence but for now, since the research for these kind of beings had started, nothing has been proven yet.

Come to think of it. If there are these kinds of beings, it only means, it’s not only us who thrives in this universe we belong to. These means, there are threats in our existence. What if someday, there place would be so crowded already and they would decide to thrive on earth. As said earlier, they are far more advanced than humans therefore, if they will need our world, they could just simply eviscerate us. I doubt the humans would stand a chance.

But, think in a different manner, if they are really present maybe, we could ask for their help with regards to our problems here in our world since they are far advanced than us, maybe they could lend us some of their knowledge and technology. Can you see it? They would be a big help to us.

If they really exist, why didn’t they show themselves up? Fear cannot be a reason for this I think since, as said earlier they are far advanced than us. So, why will they fear us if they are far more powerful than us? Well, maybe, they were just a peaceful kind of beings and they have seen that humans can create nothing but chaos that’s why they are avoiding us.

One thing I just realized was that, if they have advanced technology, maybe, they were living with us as one of our neighbourhood or were just above us but we cannot see them. If my wild imagination was right, we are surrounded by aliens already in this world we thrive on.

Another thing, if these extra terrestrials exist, where does they live? And how do they live? How they reproduce? How do they look? I know you also have a lot of questions about them but all of these were still unanswerable.

Scientists continue to research and conduct experiments and expeditions in the galaxy in order to clarify whether or not these being exist.

Well, in my opinion, if they don’t exist, why do stories about them continue to grow and why do people and scientists continue to research about them, why all these stories and beliefs vanish. For me, I believe that they really exist and that they were just waiting for the right time to show themselves u ad lend us some help but for now, they just choose to remain as a belief so that people will not know anything about them because it would just create a great chaos between our races because humans, by its very nature, are greed not just in earthly things but also in terrestrials. I know that if one terrestrial would be caught, scientists would look at it as a great source of knowledge, a great source of fame.

Maybe if they just have seen humans as friendly beings, they might have shown up their selves from the very point that they have discovered our existence.

Importance of coral reefs

Coral reefs are special marine organisms that provide both shelter and food to several marine species which in turn serves as food for the higher predators in the food chain.

The coral reefs are animals that look like plants with a variety of colors. The coral reefs are a group of organisms living together. Coral reefs are composed of the coral polyps, the tiny little creatures that look like sea anemones and create calcium carbonate exoskeletons that make up the larger coral structure and the coral skeleton. Each generation builds upon the previous generation, and that is how the coral reefs “grow.”

Corals fed on the dinoflagellates, a photosynthesizing alga, that lives in polyps in the coral. These organisms are intertwined because neither of the two is able to live on its own. They depend on each other for survival. Dinoflagellates depend on sunlight that is why most of the corals are found in the shallow waters where sunlight can penetrate.

Coral reefs are also a big use to us, humans. Coral reefs help us in several ways. For example, Coral reefs serve as barrier that protect nearby shorelines from the eroding forces of the sea, thereby protecting coastal dwellings, agricultural land and beaches. Also, coral reefs lessen the impact of tsunamis and hurricanes trough breaking its power and reducing its intensity.

Another significant role of the coral reefs is, as said earlier, to provide food and shelter for the several marine species specifically, fishes and these fishes where what we take as food or as major products in some parts of the world. Did you expect that? Coral reefs had been very important in our economy!

Also, a major breakthrough in the treatment of HIV infections is the medicine AZT that is based on the chemicals found in sponge reefs in the Caribbean and it highlights the potential of medicinal value of coral reefs. Pharmaceutical companies have targeted coral reefs for medicines on cancer and other terminal diseases.

Lastly, coral reefs had also been a big use in the industry of tourism because of its great beauty and wonderful colors.

coral bleaching

In today’s world, we all know that many things depreciate and coral reefs were one of it. It is estimated that 20% of the world’s coral reefs have been effectively destroyed in the last few decades and an additional 20% or more are severely degraded, particularly in the Caribbean Sea and Southeast Asia. This was because of several reasons and one of the reasons was our own doing. Because of several human activities such as, trampling, destructive fishing techniques (e.g., poison, dynamite), pollution and anchoring, coral bleaching occurs, a phenomena where the coral reefs die out and only the coral skeleton is left. The coral skeleton is simply calcium carbonate, and is white, while the polyps provide the great variety of color to coral reefs.

Worldwide problems such as ocean water acidification and increased global ocean temperatures also contribute to the decay of this fragile ecosystem. Taking action to decrease land water pollutants would drastically improve ocean and coral health. Also supporting worldwide limits on fishing and fishing practices would allow only sustainable fishing to take place, protecting coral and giving fish a chance to reproduce and keep their populations at healthy levels, ensuring fish well into the future. Actions to reduce greenhouse gases would also help reduce global warming and therefore ocean warming. While many obstacles are difficult to overcome, making minor changes in everyday living can change the fate of the planet. The coral reefs are our warning system – if they can’t survive, we are on our way to inhospitable planet. But if we can protect our reefs, we can all thrive in a healthy world, and enjoy the beauty of the sea gardens for generations to come.

We should bear in mind the message said in the movie, Avatar, ‘Men, enough of greed, stop exploring other lives just for some parochial needs, let life sustain, in what form it is, no matter wherever it is’.

Importance of the Earth’s Hydrosphere

Hydrosphere refers to all the water that comprises the earth’s surface. Hydrosphere is composed of all forms of waters whether liquid, ice or in the form of water vapour. The hydrosphere comprises almost ¾ or about 71% of the earth’s surface. Hydrosphere simply means the totality of the water that surrounds the earth.


Water is very essential in the life of every organism. Water, unbelievably, comprises 75% of our body. As we all know, water has been one of the primary needs of humans, animals and all living things since the very beginning of the world’s existence and it would continue until the end. There are many uses of water in our daily world. It has served as a habitat for the marine and aquatic creatures, it satisfies the human needs such as to quench thirst, wash clothes and dishes, used in cooking, bathing, watering plants, and industrial purposes and also, it has been used as a source of hydroelectric power which provides us energy in a form of electricity. Water has also served as one of the reasons that made the earth available for the existence of human beings because of its very special characteristics that cools and heats slowly making the earth able to adjust with the sudden changes of the temperature. Water also has its special ability being the universal solvent. These are some of the many importance of the earth’s hydrosphere.

Throughout our lives, we just consume water and never care much about it. But, what does really happen to water after we consume it?

Water has its cycle. Water from the surfaces of the earth evaporates due to the heat and form water vapours in the atmosphere this is called the process of evaporation. When the water evaporates, it accumulates in the atmosphere, this then is called condensation. After condensation, the water vapours pour down again to the surfaces of the earth in the form of a rain and this process is called precipitation.

So much for the amazement, if water has its many uses and functions, it also has its corresponding problems. In today’s world, water is somehow no more 100% safe for us to use. Also, one island is feared to be gone for the next following years because of the continuous rise of the sea water.

The water we see today were no more safe to use because it was already contaminated and who was to be blamed? None other than us! Because of our continued technological improvements, our natural resources have been damaged particularly, the water.

We continue to create better artificial things which would make our life easier and more convenient but we forgot the fact that each step we take to something we don’t have, is a step we take away from what we already have.

Also, these were the same reasons why the sea water level continues to rise. Because of our technological advancements, we also have damaged the ozone layer which causes global warming making the earth’s surface hotter which then makes the large glaciers melt down. If the global warming continues to worsen, the earth would become much hotter and glaciers in return, would melt faster and if all the glaciers melt, many other islands would be gone in the world’s map.


I know that these threats could no more be removed since one sad factor of the earth is that, it is incurable in some of its aspects and sadly, the hydrosphere is one of these aspects. All that we can do now is to minimize it through minimizing ourselves from our continued act of demolishing the earth.

I know that we only do these things for us to have a better and easier way of living. Who would not want to? But, we should always bear in mind that even improvements and convenience if too much, is also not good!

You might say that I am just pessimistic but, when should I start to worry? When it’s already late? Think of it!

Science and Technology (Advantages and Disadvantages)

What is science?

Science is the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena. It is a methodological activity, discipline, or study, an activity that appears to require study and method. Or simply, for me, science is the explanation of everything that you can see and of those which you could not.

What is technology?

Technology is the application of tools and methods. It is the method of applying technical knowledge. It is everything that is made by man to make living easier and more convenient.

In today’s world, we could never detach the word technology from science as it goes hand in hand. For example, if science is the study of everything, well, technology is the product of all these studies.

To make it simpler, I’ll make an applicable example. In the cultivation of land for crops, the study of cultivating the land is called science while, the things you use to cultivate it is called technology e.g. spade, tractor, plowshare and the likes.

Through the years this things had helped us and today, they continue to help us and promises to continue helping us in the future. In contrary, though these things help us to grow, we should always bear in mind that anything that is not natural has its side effects.

Now I’m going to present to you the advantages and disadvantages of science and technology.

I will give you pictures and show you both its advantages and disadvantages.


 Medicines are used to cure and prevent diseases, to strengthen the immune system, and to boost the body’s performance. This is the advantage of medicine. While its disadvantages, were its side effects.  It might also cause overdose when not taken with the right prescription.


Do not be captivated by the child’s cuteness, focus on what he was holding. See? At his very young age, this child was already using a phone not knowing that phones have radiations that may cause certain health problems. But, on the bright side, the child might be having a conversation with her mother working on the other country. With such a long distance, phones are really helpful as a means of communication to make a constant personal touch. Phones are also helpful in times of emergency.


Fertilizers are used to boost the plants growth, to cultivate land and to ensure a healthy growth for an abundant harvest. On the other hand, these fertilizers may cause danger to the health of those who get contact to it especially to those who would accidentally intake the fertilizer. Also, fertilizers may desolate the land.


            This tomato, as it looks, was so big. It actually weighed 7 pounds 12 ounces (3.52kg). Amazing right? This is because of the science and technology. It had caused the tomato grow big which is a big help in industrialized countries having most of its lands built with large buildings making it unable to grow large quantity and wide variety of plants. But, knowing that it is not natural, means that it has side effects, it might be that this tomato might cause the food to perish faster and it might not be safe anymore to eat this big tomato.

These were just a few of the sciences and technologies in the world that we are able to see and even use in our everyday life. All of it has its own advantages and disadvantages but, what is sure was that these things are made to make living easier and more convenient though, sad to say, these also unwillingly make our life shorter.

Imagine your life being a cancer patient due to too much exposure to radiation or being poisoned by the chemicals you intake or by the air you breathe. This might be a possible outcome of too much exposure to science and technology. But, also try to imagine your life without your phone, then you are lost in the middle of the town or you don’t have the internet and you have to finish your research by tomorrow or you might be having hypertension and you don’t have these medicines.

I know that science and technology has its side effects, its disadvantages, but, what I understand was that, all these things help make living easier and help make works become faster. When I would grow old, I’d rather take the medicine for my hypertension and suffer its side effects than consider that it would be my end.